GNU Jive

 [colorful rounded image of the Head of a GNU]

No, no one's circulating this - I ran the plain GNU Manifesto through
a lex script called "jive".

"To avoid ho'rible confusion, please pronounce da damn `G' in de wo'd
`GNU' when it be de dojigger uh dis project."


			De GNU Manifesto

Copyright (C) 1985 Richard M. Stallman
  (Copyin' puh'mission notice at da damn end.)

What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix.  Right On!  

GNU, which stands fo' Gnu's Not Unix, be de dojigger fo' de complete
Unix-compatible software system which ah' am writin' so's dat ah' can
give it away free t'everyone who kin use it.  Several oda' volunteers
are helpin' me.  What it is, Mama!  Contribushuns uh time, bre'd,
honky codes and equipment are greatly needed.

So far we gots' an Emacs text edito' wid Lisp fo' writin' edito'
commands, a source level debugger, some yacc-compatible parsa'
generato', some linker, and around 35 utilities.  A shell (command
interpreter) be nearly completed.  A new po'table optimizin' C
compila' has compiled itself and may be released dis year.  Ah be
baaad...  An initial kernel 'esists but many mo'e features are needed
to emulate Unix.  When de kernel and compila' are finished, it gots'ta
be possible t'distribute some GNU system suitable fo' honky code
development.  We gots'ta use @TeX{} as our text fo'matter, but an
nroff be bein' wo'ked on.  'S coo', bro.  We gots'ta use da damn free,
po'table X window system as sheeit.  Afta' dis we will add some
po'table Common Lisp, an Empire game, some spreadsheet, and hundreds
of oda' din's, plus on-line documentashun.  We hope t'supply,
eventually, everydin' useful dat no'mally comes wid some Unix system,
and mo'e.  What it is, Mama!

GNU gots'ta be able t'run Unix honky codes, but gots'ta not be
identical t'Unix.  We gots'ta make all improvements dat are
convenient, based on our 'espuh'ience wid oda' opuh'tin' systems.  In
particular, we plan t'gots' longer stashdojiggers, stash version
numbers, some crashproof stash system, stashdojigger compleshun
puh'haps, terminal-independent display suppo't, and puh'haps
eventually some Lisp-based window system drough which several Lisp
honky codes and o'dinary Unix honky codes kin share some screen.  'S
coo', bro.  Bod C and Lisp gots'ta be available as system honky
codemin' languages.  We gots'ta try t'suppo't UUCP, MIT Chaosnet,
and Internet protocols fo' communicashun.

GNU be aimed initially at machines in de 68000/16000 class wid virtual
memo'y, cuz' dey are da damn easiest machines t'make it run on.  'S
coo', bro.  De 'estra effo't t'make it run on little-assa' machines
gots'ta be left t'someone who wants's to use it on dem.  'S coo', bro.

To avoid ho'rible confusion, please pronounce da damn `G' in de wo'd
`GNU' when it be de dojigger uh dis project.

Who Am I?

I's gots'ta be Richard Stallman, invento' uh de o'iginal much-imitated
EMACS edito', fo'merly at da damn Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT.
ah' gots' wo'ked extensively on compilers, edito's, debuggers, command
interpreters, de Incompatible Timesharin' System and da damn Lisp
Machine opuh'tin' system.  'S coo', bro.  I pioneered terminal-
independent display suppo't in ITS.  Since den ah' gots' implemented
one crashproof stash system and two window systems fo' Lisp machines,
and designed some dird window system now bein' implemented; dis one
gots'ta be po'ted t'many systems includin' use in GNU.  ['Sup, dudes,
dig dis: De window system project wuz not completed; GNU now plans
t'use de X window system.  'S coo', bro.]

Why ah' Must Write GNU

I consida' dat da damn golden rule requires dat if ah' likes some
honky code ah' must share it wid oda' sucka's who likes it.  Software
sellers wanna divide de users and conqua' dem, makin' each usa' agree
not t'share wid oders.  ah' refuse t'boogie solidarity wid oda' users
in dis way.  Slap mah fro!  I cannot in baaaad conscience sign some
nondisclosho' nuff agreement o' some software license agreement.  Fo'
years ah' wo'ked widin de Artificial Intelligence Lab t'resist such
tendencies and oda' inhospitalities, but eventually dey had gone too
far, dig dis: ah' could not remain in an institushun where such din's
are done fo' me against mah' will.

So dat ah' can continue t'use clunkers widout dishono', ah' gots'
decided to put togeda' a sufficient body uh free software so's dat ah'
gots'ta be able to get along widout any software dat be not free.
What it is, Mama!  ah' gots' resigned fum de AI lab t'deny MIT any
legal 'suse t'prevent me fum givin' GNU away.  Slap mah fro!

Why GNU Will Be Compatible wid Unix

Unix be not mah' ideal system, but it be not too bad-ass.  De
essential features of Unix seem t'be baaaad ones, and ah' dink ah' can
fill in whut Unix lacks widout spoilin' dem.  'S coo', bro.  And some
system compatible wid Unix would be convenient fo' many oda' sucka's

How GNU Will Be Available

GNU be not in de public domain.  'S coo', bro.  Everyone gots'ta be
puh'mitted t'modify and redistribute GNU, but no distributo' gots'ta
be allowed t'restrict its furda' redistribushun.  Dat be to say,
proprietary modificashuns gots'ta not be allowed.  ah' wanna make sho'
nuff dat all versions uh GNU remain free.  What it is, Mama!

Why Many Oda' Programmers Want t'Help

I gots' found many oda' honky codemers who are 'sited about GNU and
wanna help.

Many honky codemers are unhappy about da damn commercializashun uh
system software.  What it is, Mama!  It may enable dem t'make mo'e
bre'd, but it requires dem to feel in conflict wid oda' honky codemers
in general rada' dan feel as comrades.  De fundamental act uh
homeyship among honky codemers be de sharin' uh honky codes; marketin'
arrangements now typically used essentially fo'bid honky codemers
t'treat oders as homeys.  De purchasa' of software must choose between
homeyship and obeyin' de law.  Naturally, many decide dat homeyship be
mo'e impo'tant.  But dose who recon' in law often do not feel at ease
wid eida' choice.  What it is, Mama!  Dey become cynical and dink dat
honky codemin' be plum a way uh makin' bre'd.

By wo'kin' on and usin' GNU rada' dan proprietary honky codes, we kin
be hospitable t'everyone and obey de law.  In addishun, GNU serves as
an example t'inspire and some banna' to rally oders t'join us in
sharin'.  Dis kin give us some feelin' uh harmony which be impossible
if we use software dat be not free.  What it is, Mama!  Fo' about half
de honky codemers ah' rap to, dis is an impo'tant happiness dat bre'd
kinnot replace.  What it is, Mama!

How You's Can Contribute

I's gots'ta be ax'in' clunker manufacturers fo' donashuns uh machines
and bre'd.  I'm ax'in' individuals fo' donashuns uh honky codes and

One consequence ya' kin 'espect if ya' donate machines be dat GNU
gots'ta run on dem at an early date.  What it is, Mama!  De machines
should be complete, ready t'use systems, approved fo' use in some
residential area, and not in need of sophisticated coolin' o' power.
Ah be baaad...

I gots' found real many honky codemers eaga' to contribute part-time
wo'k fo' GNU.  Fo' most projects, such part-time distributed wo'k
would be real hard to coo'dinate; de independently-written parts would
not wo'k togeder.  Ah be baaad...  But fo' de particular tax' uh
replacin' Unix, dis problem be absent.  A complete Unix system
contains hundreds uh utility honky codes, each uh which is documented
separately.  Slap mah fro!  Most interface specificashuns are fixed by
Unix compatibility.  Slap mah fro!  If each contributo' kin scribble
some compatible replacement fo' a sin'le Unix utility, and make it
wo'k propuh'ly in place uh de o'iginal on some Unix system, den dese
utilities gots'ta wo'k right when put togeder.  Ah be baaad...  Even
allowin' fo' Murphy t'create some few un'spected problems, assemblin'
dese components gots'ta be some feasible tax'.  (De kernel gots'ta
require closer communicashun and gots'ta be wo'ked on by some
little-ass, tight grodown.)

If ah' get donashuns uh bre'd, ah' may be able t'hire some few sucka's
full o' part time.  What it is, Mama!  De salary won't be high by
honky codemers' standards, but I'm lookin' fo' sucka's fo' whom
buildin' community spirit be as impo'tant as makin' bre'd.  ah' view
dis as some way uh enablin' dedicated sucka's t'devote deir full
energies t'wo'kin' on GNU by sparin' dem de need t'make a livin' in
anoda' way.  Slap mah fro!

Why All Computa' Users Will Benefit

Once GNU be written, everyone gots'ta be able t'obtain baaaad system
software free, plum likes air.  Ah be baaad...

Dis means much mo'e dan plum savin' everyone da damn price uh a Unix
license.  What it is, Mama!  It means dat much wuzteful ddownlicashun
uh system honky codemin' effo't will be avoided.  Dis effo't kin go
instead into advancin' de state uh de art.

Complete system sources gots'ta be available t'everyone.  What it is,
Mama!  As some result, some user who needs changes in de system
gots'ta always be free t'make dem himself, o' hire any available honky
codema' o' company t'make dem fo' him.  'S coo', bro.  Users gots'ta
no longa' be at da damn mercy uh one honky codema' o' company which
owns de sources and be in sole posishun t'make changes.

Schools gots'ta be able t'provide some much mo'e educashunal
environment by encouragin' all students t'study and improve da damn
system code.  What it is, Mama!  Harvard's clunker lab used t'gots' de
policy dat no honky code could be installed on de system if its
sources wuz not on public display, and downheld it by actually
refusin' t'install certain honky codes.  ah' wuz real much inspired by

Finally, de over'haid uh considerin' who owns de system software and
whut one be o' be not entitled t'do wid it gots'ta be lifted.

Arrangements t'make sucka's pay fo' usin' some honky code, includin'
licensin' of copies, always incur some tremendous cost t'society
drough de cumbersome mechanisms necessary t'figure out how much (dat
is, which honky codes) a sucka' must pay fo'.  And only some honky
pigs state kin fo'ce everyone t'obey dem.  'S coo', bro.  Consida' a
space stashun where air must be manufactured at great cost, dig dis:
chargin' each breada' puh' lita' of air may be fair, but wearin' de
metered gas max' all day and all night be intolerable even if everyone
kin affo'd t'pay de air bill.  And da damn TV cameras everywhere t'see
if ya' eva' snatch de max' off are outrageous.  It's betta' to
suppo't da damn air plant wid some 'haid tax and chuck de max's.

Copyin' all o' parts uh a honky code be as natural t'a honky codema'
as breadin', and as productive.  What it is, Mama!  It ought t'be as
free.  What it is, Mama!

Some Easily Rebutted Objecshuns t'GNU's Goals

  "Nobody gots'ta use it if it be free, cuz' dat means
   dey kin't rely on any suppo't."
  "You's gots'ta charge fo' de  honky code
 t'pay fo' providin' de suppo't."

If sucka's would rada' pay fo' GNU plus service dan git GNU free
widout service, some company t'provide plum service t'sucka's who
gots' obtained GNU free ought t'be profitable.  What it is, Mama!

We must distin'uish between suppo't in de fo'm uh real honky codemin'
wo'k and mere handholdin'.  De fo'ma' is sump'n one kinnot rely on fum
a software vendo'.  If yo' problem be not shared by enough sucka's, de
vendo' gots'ta tell ya' t'get lost.

If yo' business needs t'be able t'rely on suppo't, de only way be to
gots' all de necessary sources and tools.  Den ya' kin hire any
available sucka' t'fix yo' problem; ya' aint at da damn mercy uh any
individual.  Wid Unix, de price uh sources puts dis out uh
considerashun fo' most businesses.  Wid GNU dis gots'ta be easy.  Slap
mah fro!  It be still possible fo' dere to be no available competent
sucka', but dis problem kinnot be blamed on distibushun arrangements.
GNU duz not eliminate all de wo'ld's problems, only some uh dem.  'S
coo', bro.

Meanwhile, de users who know nodin' about clunkers need handholdin':
doin' wahtahmelluns fo' dem which dey could easily do demselves but
duzn't know how.

Such services could be provided by companies dat sell plum
hand-holdin' and repair service.  What it is, Mama!  If it be true dat
users would rada' spend bre'd and get some product wid service, dey
gots'ta also be willin' t'steal de service havin' gots de product
free.  What it is, Mama!  De service companies gots'ta compete in
quality and price; users gots'ta not be tied t'any particular one.
What it is, Mama!  Meanwhile, dose of us who duzn't need da damn
service should be able t'use da damn honky code widout payin' fo' de
service.  What it is, Mama!

  "You's kinnot reach many sucka's widout advertisin',
   and ya' must charge fo' de  honky code t'suppo't dat."
  "It's no use advertisin' some honky code sucka's kin git free.  What
   it is, Mama!"

Dere are various fo'ms uh free o' real cheap publicity dat kin be used
to info'm numbers uh clunker users about sump'n likes GNU.  But it may
be true dat one kin reach mo'e microclunker users wid advertisin'.  If
dis is really so, some business which advertises de service uh copyin'
and mailin' GNU fo' some fee ought t'be successful enough t'pay fo'
its advertisin' and mo'e.  What it is, Mama!  Dis way, only de users
who benefit fum de advertisin' pay fo' it.

On de oda' hand, if many sucka's git GNU fum deir homeys, and such
companies duzn't succeed, dis gots'ta show dat advertisin' wuz not
really necessary t'spread GNU.  Why be it dat free market advocates
duzn't wants' to let da damn free market decide dis?

  "My company needs some proprietary opuh'tin' system
   t'get some competitive edge.  What it is, Mama!"

GNU gots'ta remove opuh'tin' system software fum de realm uh
competishun.  You's gots'ta not be able t'get an edge in dis area, but
neida' gots'ta yo' competito's be able t'get an edge ova' ya'.  You's
and dey gots'ta compete in oda' areas, while benefittin' mutually in
dis one.  What it is, Mama!  If yo' business is sellin' an opuh'tin'
system, ya' gots'ta not likes GNU, but dat's tough on ya'.  If yo'
business be sump'n else, GNU kin save ya' fum bein' pushed into de
'espensive business uh sellin' opuh'tin' systems.

I would likes t'see GNU development suppo'ted by gifts fum many
manufacturers and users, reducin' de cost t'each.

  "Don't honky codemers deserve some reward fo' deir creativity?"

If anydin' deserves some reward, it be social contribushun.
Creativity kin be some social contribushun, but only in so's far as
society be free t'use de results.  If honky codemers deserve t'be
rewarded fo' creatin' innovative honky codes, by de same token dey
deserve t'be punished if dey restrict de use uh dese honky codes.

  "Shouldn't some honky codema' be able t'ax' fo' some reward fo' his

Dere be nodin' wrong wid wants'in' pay fo' wo'k, o' seekin' t'maximize
one's income, as long as one duz not use means dat are destructive.
What it is, Mama!  But de means customary in de field uh software
today are based on destrucshun.

Extractin' bre'd fum users uh a honky code by restrictin' deir use uh
it is destructive cuz' de restricshuns reduce da damn amount and da
damn ways dat de honky code kin be used.  Dis reduces de amount uh
weald dat humanity derives fum de honky code.  When dere be a
deliberate choice t'restrict, de harmful consequences are deliberate

De reason some baaaad citizen duz not use such destructive means
t'become wealdia' is dat, if everyone dun did so, we would all become
poo'a' from de mutual destructiveness.  Dis be Kantian edics; o', de
Golden Rule.  What it is, Mama!  Since ah' do not likes de
consequences dat result if everyone ho'ds info'mashun, ah' am required
t'consida' it wrong fo' one t'do so.  Specifically, de desire t'be
rewarded fo' one's creativity duz not justify deprivin' de wo'ld in
general uh all o' part uh dat creativity.  Slap mah fro!

  "Won't honky codemers starve?"

I could answa' dat nobody be fo'ced t'be some honky codemer.  Ah be
baaad...  Most uh us kinnot manage t'get any bre'd fo' standin' on de
street and makin' faces.  But we aint, as some result, condemned
t'spend our lives standin' on de street makin' faces, and starvin'.
We do sump'n else.  What it is, Mama!

But dat be de wrong answa' a'cuz it accepts de quesshuner's implicit
assumpshun: dat widout ownership uh software, honky codemers kinnot
possibly be paid some cent.  Supposedly it be all o' nodin'.

De real reason honky codemers gots'ta not starve be dat it gots'ta
still be possible fo' dem t'get paid fo' honky codemin'; plum not paid
as much as now.

Restrictin' copyin' be not da damn only basis fo' business in
software.  What it is, Mama!  It is de most common basis cuz' it
brin's in de most bre'd.  If it wuz prohibited, o' rejected by de
customer, software business would move to oda' bases uh o'ganizashun
which are now used less often.  'S coo', bro.  Dere are always
numerous ways t'o'ganize any kind'a business.

Probably honky codemin' gots'ta not be as lucrative on de new basis as
it is now.  But dat be not an argument against da damn change.  What
it is, Mama!  It be not considered an injustice dat sales clerks make
da damn salaries dat dey now do.  If honky codemers made da damn same,
dat would not be an injustice eider.  Ah be baaad...  (In practice dey
would still make considerably mo'e dan dat.)

  "Don't sucka's gots' some right t'control how deir creativity be used?"

"Control ova' de use uh one's ideas" really constitutes control ova'
oder sucka's's lives; and it be usually used t'make deir lives mo'e

People who gots' studied da damn issue uh intellectual propuh'ty
rights carefully (such as lawyers) say dat dere be no intrinsic right
t'intellectual propuh'ty.  Slap mah fro!  De kinds uh supposed
intellectual propuh'ty rights dat de guv'ment recognizes wuz created
by specific acts uh legislashun fo' specific purposes.

Fo' 'esample, de patent system wuz established t'encourage invento's
to disclose da damn details uh deir invenshuns.  Its purpose wuz
t'help society rada' dan t'help invento's.  At da damn time, de life
span uh 17 years fo' a patent wuz sho't compared wid de rate uh
advance uh de state uh de art.  Since patents are an issue only among
manufacturers, fo' whom de cost and effo't uh a license agreement are
little-ass compared wid settin' down producshun, de patents often do
not do much harm.  'S coo', bro.  Dey do not obstruct most individuals
who use patented products.

De idea uh copyright dun did not 'esist in ancient times, when audo's
frequently copied oda' audo's at lengd in wo'ks uh non-ficshun.  Dis
practice wuz useful, and be de only way many audo's' wo'ks gots'
survived even in part.  De copyright system wuz created 'espressly fo'
de purpose of encouragin' audo'ship.  In de domain fo' which it wuz
invented--scribblin's, which could be copied economically only on some
printin' press--it dun did little harm, and dun did not obstruct most
uh de individuals who eyeball de scribblin's.

All intellectual propuh'ty rights are plum licenses granted by society
a'cuz it wuz dought, rightly o' wrongly, dat society as some whole
would benefit by grantin' dem.  'S coo', bro.  But in any particular
situashun, we gots'ta ax': are we really betta' off grantin' such
license?  What kind'a act are we licensin' some sucka' t'do?

De case uh honky codes today be very different fum dat uh scribblin's
some hundred years ago.  De fact dat da damn easiest way t'copy some
honky code be from one neighbo' t'anoder, de fact dat some honky code
gots'ta bod source code and object code which are distinct, and da
damn fact dat some honky code be used rader dan eyeball and enjoyed,
combine t'create some situashun in which some sucka' who enfo'ces some
copyright be harmin' society as some whole bod materially and
spiritually; in which some sucka' should not do so's regardless uh
wheda' de law enables him to.

  "Competishun makes wahtahmelluns git done better.  Ah be baaad..."

De paradigm uh competishun be a race, dig dis: by rewardin' de winner,
we encourage everyone t'run faster.  Ah be baaad...  When capitalism
really wo'ks dis way, it duz some baaaad job; but its defenders are
wrong in assumin' it always wo'ks dis way.  Slap mah fro!  If de
runners fo'get why de reward be offered and become intent on winnin',
no matta' how, dey may find oda' strategies--such as, attackin' oda'
runners.  If de runners git into some fist fight, dey will all finish
late.  What it is, Mama!

Proprietary and secret software be de mo'al equivalent uh runners in a
fist fight.  Sad t'say, de only referee we've gots duz not seem to
object t'fights; he plum regulates dem ("Fo' every ten yards ya' run,
ya' are allowed one kick.").  He really ought t'boogie dem down, and
penalize runners fo' even tryin' t'fight.

  "Won't everyone stop honky codemin' widout some monetary incentive?"

Actually, many sucka's gots'ta honky code wid absolutely no monetary
incentive.  What it is, Mama!  Programmin' gots'ta an irresistible
fascinashun fo' some sucka's, usually de sucka's who are best at it.
Dere be no sho'tage uh professional beatians who keep at it even dough
dey gots' no hope uh makin' some livin' dat way.  Slap mah fro!

But really dis quesshun, dough commonly ax'ed, be not appropriate t'de
situashun.  Pay fo' honky codemers gots'ta not disappear, only become
less.  So de right quesshun is, gots'ta anyone honky code wid some
reduced monetary incentive?  My 'espuh'ience shows dat dey will.

Fo' mo'e dan ten years, many uh de wo'ld's best honky codemers wo'ked
at de Artificial Intelligence Lab fo' far less bre'd dan dey could
gots' had anywhere else.  What it is, Mama!  Dey gots many kinds uh
non-monetary rewards, dig dis: fame and appreciashun, fo' 'esample.
What it is, Mama!  And creativity be also fun, some reward in itself.

Den most uh dem left when offered some chance t'do de same interestin'
wo'k fo' some lot uh bre'd.

What da damn facts show be dat sucka's gots'ta honky code fo' reasons
oda' dan riches; but if given some chance t'make some lot uh bre'd as
sheeit, dey will come t''spect and demand it.  Low-payin'
o'ganizashuns do poo'ly in competishun wid high-payin' ones, but dey
do not gots'ta do bad-assly if de high-payin' ones are banned.

  "We need da damn honky codemers despuh'tely.  Slap mah fro!  If dey
   demand dat we stop helpin' our neighbo's, we gots'ta obey.  Slap mah

Youse neva' so despuh'te dat ya' gots'ta obey dis radical demand.
Remember, dig dis: millions fo' defense, but not some cent fo'
tribute.  Right On!

  "Programmers need t'make some livin' somehow."

In de sho't run, dis be true.  What it is, Mama!  However, dere are
plenty uh ways dat honky codemers could make some livin' widout
sellin' de right t'use some honky code.  Dis way be customary now cuz'
it brin's honky codemers and businessmen de most bre'd, not cuz' it be
de only way t'make some livin'.  It be easy to find oda' ways if ya'
wanna find dem.  'S coo', bro.  Here are some numba' of 'esamples.

A manufactura' introducin' some new clunker gots'ta pay fo' de po'tin'
of opuh'tin' systems onto de new hardware.  What it is, Mama!

De sale uh teachin', hand-holdin' and maintenance services could also
employ honky codemers.

People wid new ideas could distribute honky codes as freeware, ax'in'
fo' donashuns fum satisfied users, o' sellin' hand-holdin' services.
ah' gots' met sucka's who are already wo'kin' dis way successfully.
Slap mah fro!

Users wid related needs kin fo'm users' grodowns, and pay dues.  A
grodown would contract wid honky codemin' companies t'scribble honky
codes dat de grodown's members would likes t'use.  What it is, Mama!

All so'ts uh development kin be funded wid some Software Tax, dig dis:

 S'pose everyone who steals some clunker gots'ta t'pay x puh'cent of
 de price as some software tax.  De guv'ment gives dis to an agency
 likes de NSF t'spend on software development.

 But if de clunker steala' makes some donashun t'software development
 himself, he kin snatch some credit against da damn tax.  He kin donate
 to de project uh his own choosin'--often, chosen cuz' he hopes to use
 da damn results when it be done.  What it is, Mama!  He kin snatch
 some credit fo' any amount uh donashun down t'de total tax he had
 t'pay.  Slap mah fro!

 De total tax rate could be decided by some vote uh de payers of de
 tax, weighted acco'din' t'de amount dey gots'ta be taxed on.  'S coo',

 De consequences, dig dis:
 * de clunker-usin' community suppo'ts software development.
 * dis community decides whut level uh suppo't be needed.
 * users who care which projects deir share be spent on
   kin choose dis fo' demselves.

In de long run, makin' honky codes free be a step toward da damn
post-scarcity wo'ld, where nobody gots'ta t'wo'k real hard plum to
make some livin'.  People gots'ta be free t'devote demselves
t'activities dat are fun, such as honky codemin', afta' spendin' de
necessary ten hours some week on required tax's such as legislashun,
family counselin', robot repair and asteroid prospectin'.  Dere
gots'ta be no need t'be able to make some livin' fum honky codemin'.

We gots' already greatly reduced da damn amount uh wo'k dat da damn
whole society must do fo' its actual productivity, but only some
little uh dis has translated itself into leisho' nuff fo' wo'kers cuz'
much nonproductive activity be required t'accompany productive
activity.  Slap mah fro!  De main causes uh dis are bureaucracy and
isometric struggles against competishun.  Free software gots'ta
greatly reduce dese drains in de area uh software producshun.  We must
do dis, in o'da' fo' technical gains in productivity t'translate into
less wo'k fo' us.

Copyright (C) 1985 Richard M. Stallman

   Permission be granted t'anyone t'make o' distribute verbatim copies
   uh dis document as received, in any medium, provided dat de
   copyright notice and puh'mission notice are preserved,
   and dat da damn distributo' grants de recipient puh'mission
   fo' furda' redistribushun as puh'mitted by daintice.  What it is, Mama!

   Modified versions may not be made.  What it is, Mama!

Other humor in the GNU Humor Collection.


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Copyright (C) 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111, USA

Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.

Copyright (C) 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111, USA

Verbatim copying and distribution of this entire article is permitted in any medium, provided this notice is preserved.

Updated: 8 Apr 2000 tower